Section of Immunobiology of Bacteria

Head of the Department: Prof. dr hab. Antoni Różalski

Address: 90-237 Łódź, Banacha Street 12/16, building A

Phone: +48 42 635 44 64

Fax: +48 42 665 58 18




Name and surname




Consultation hours

Prof. Antoni Różalski (Head )

+48 42 635 44 64

A / 336

Wed. 12:00 -14:00

Dr. Iwona Kwil (lecturer)

+48 42 635 45 27

A / 337

Wed. 12:00 -14:00

Dr. Agnieszka Maszewska (adjunct)

+48 42 635 43 24

A / 269

Thu. 12:00 -13:00

Dr. Magdalena Moryl  (adjunct)

+48 42 635 43 42

A / 269

Thu. 12:00-13:00

Dr. Agnieszka Torzewska(adjunct)

+48 42 635 43 24

A / 269

Thu. 12:00-13:00

Mgr. Iwona Piątkowska (res. techn.)

+48 42 635 4527

A / 337


PhD students:

Name and surname



Mgr. Kinga Ostrowska

 +48 42 635 4527



Research topics

  1. Chemical structure and serological specificity of O-antigens of bacteria Providencia alcalifaciens and Providencia stuartii.
  2. Pathogenic factors of bacteria from the species Proteus and Providencia. The aims of studies are characterization of selected virulence factors of these bacteria, estimation of their distribution within collections of bacterial strains and correlations between strains and expression of particular factors.
  3. Infectious urolithiasis connected with Proteus mirabilis infections. The aims of studies conducted in vitro are mechanisms of infectious urinary stones formation and the role of bacterial pathogenic factors, as well as the influence of the macroorganism’s environment in this process.
  4. Biofilm of the bacilli from the Proteus and Providencia species. The aim of studies are investigations of the role of biofilm in the pathogenicity of urinary tract infections, as well as elaboration of effective methods of eradication of microorganisms growing in settle form.
  5. Bacteriophages and bacteriocins of uropathogenic bacteria form the species of Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. Investigations share characterization of polyvalent bacteriophages of resistant to antibiotics strains P.mirabilis, P.stuartii and M.morganii and bacteriocins produced by these bacteria. Bacteriophages and bacteriocins will be used for destruction of mono- and multispecies biofilm.

Research projects 

  1. Biofilm of Providencia stuartii – estimation of its formations, factors important in biofilm growth (grant of the University of Lodz for young scientists.
  2. Genetic analysis of Proteus and Providencia O-antigens (in collaborations with TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China).
  3. Influence of the environmental growth conditions on the hydrophobicity of Proteus penneri strains (core funding for statutory research activity of the Department of Immunobiology of Bacteria).



  1. Institute of Organic Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  2. TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
  3. Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Physics, Lodz, Poland
  4. Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences Wrocław, Poland
  5. Preoteon Pharmaceuticals S.A. Lodz. Poland 



  • One- and two directions gel electrophoresis of proteins and gel electrophoresis of lipopolysaccharides
  • Microscopic observations by use phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy (Nikon Eclipse TE2000S) as well as analysis of the pictures (program  Lucia)
  • Qualitative and quantitative immunoenzymatic tests: Western blot, Dot blot, ELISA
  • Microbiological analysis of water.


Selected publications

  1. I. Kwil, D. Kaźmierczak, A. Różalski: Swarming growth and resistance of Proteus penneri and Proteus vulgaris strains to normal human serum. Adv. Clin. Exp. Med. 2013, 22, 165-175.
  2. O.G. Ovchinnikova,O.A. Valueva, N.A. Kocharova, N.P. Arbatsky, A. Maszewska, A. Zablotni, A.S. Shashkov,A.Rozalski, Y.A. Knirel Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O35 containing an N‑[(S)‑1‑carboxyethyl]-l-alanine (alanopine) derivative of 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose. Carbohydr. Res. 2013, 375, 73-78.
  3. M. Moryl, A. Torzewska, P. Jałumużna, A. Rozalski: Analysis of Proteus mirabilis distribution in multi-species biofilms on urinary catheters and determination of bacteria resistance to antimicrobial agents. J. Polish Microbiol. 2013. 4, 377-384.
  4. A. Torzewska, A. Różalski: In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglicans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation. 2013. APMIS. DOI 10.1111/apm.12191.
  5. A. Torzewska, A. Różalski: Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances. Microbiol. Res. 2013.
  6. M. Moryl, A. Kaleta, K. Strzelecki, S. Różalska, A. Różalski: Effect of nutrient and stress factors on polysaccharides synthesis in Proteus mirabilis biofilm. Acta Biochem. Polon., 2013. Accepted.
  7. A. Różalski, A. Torzewska, M. Moryl, I. Kwil, A. Maszewska, K. Ostrowska, D. Drzewiecka,  A. Zabłotni, A. Palusiak, M. Siwińska, P. Stączek: Proteus sp. an opportunistic bacterial patogen – classification, swarming growth, clinical significance and virulence factors. Folia Biologica et Oecologica. 2012, 8, 1-17.
  8. O. G. Ovchinnikova, A. Rozalski, B. Liu, Y.A. Knirel: O-antigens of bacteria of the Genus Providencia: Structure, serology, genetics, and biosynthesis. Biochemistry (Moscow), 2013, 78, 798-817. (published also in Russian language: Biokhimiya, 2013, 78, 1023-1045).
  9. K. Ostrowska, A. Strzelczyk, A. Różalski, P. Stączek: Bacterial biofilm as a causa of urinary tract infections - pathogens, methods of preventions and eradications. Post. Hig. Med. Dośw. 2013. 67, 1027-1033. (in Polish).
  10. A. Torzewska: Oxalobacter formigenes characteristics and role in development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Post. Hig. Med. Dośw. 2013. 67, 1144-1153. (in Polish).
  11. B. Liu, M. Chen, A.V. Perepelov, J. Liu, O.G. Ovchinnikova, D. Zhou, L. Feng, A. Rozalski, Y.A. Knirel, L. Wang: Genetic analysis of the O-antigen of Providencia alcalifaciens O30 and biochemical characterization of a formyltransferase involved in the synthesis of a Qui4N derivative. Glycobiology. 2012, 9, 1236-1244.
  12. O.G. Ovchinnikova, B. Liu, D. Guo, M. Bialczak-Kokot, A.S. Shashkov, L. Feng, A. Rozalski, L. Wang, Y.A. Knirel: Structural, serological and genetic characterization of the O-antigen of Providencia alcalifaciens O40. FEMS Immunol. Medical Microbiol. 2012, 66, 382-392.
  13. O.G. Ovchinnikova, B. Liu, D. Guo, N.A. Kocharova, A.S. Shashkov, L. Feng, A. Rozalski, Y.A. Knirel, L. Wang: Localization and molecular characterization of the putative Providencia O-antigen gene cluster. Microbiology. 2012, 158, 1024-1036.
  14. G. Ovchinnikova, B. Liu, N. A. Kocharova, A. S. Shashkov, M. Siwinska, L. Feng, A. Rozalski, L. Wang,Y. A. Knirel: Structure of a peptidoglycan-related polysaccharide from Providencia alcalifaciens O45. Biochemistry (Moscow), 2012, 77, 609-615.
  15. J. Prywer, A. Torzewska, T. Płociński: Unique surface and internal structure of struvite crystals formed by Proteus mirabilis. Urol. Res. 2012, 1 40(6), 699-707.
  16. J. Prywer, A. Torzewska: Effect of curcumin against Proteus mirabilis during crystallization of struvite from artificial urine. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2012:862794. doi: 10.1155/2012/862794.
  17. A. Różalski, P. Stączek: Proteus. Chapter 84 [w] “Molecular detection of human bacterial pathogens”, (2011), p. 981-996, Ed.: D. Liu, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.
  18. Y.A. Knirel, A.V. Perepelov, A. Kondakova, S. N. Senchenkova, Z. Sidorczyk, A. Rozalski W. Kaca: Structure and serology of O-antigens as the basis for classification of Proteus strains. Innate Immunity, (2011) 17, 70-96.
  19. O.G. Ovchinnikova, N.A. Kocharova, A.A. Parkhomchuk, M. Białczak-Kokot, A.S. Shashkov, Y.A. Knirel, A. Rozalski: Structure of the O-polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O60. Carbohydr. Res. (2011) 346, 327-380.
  20. N.A. Kocharova, O.G. Ovchinnikova,M. Bialczak-Kokot, A.S. Shashkov, Y.A. Knirel, A.Rozalski Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O25 containing an amide of d‑galacturonic acid with Nε-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-l-lysine. Biochemistry (Moscow) (2011), 76, 707-712.


Dissertation topics

Subjects of master degree theses are connected to the field of research studies of the Department of Immunobiology of Bacteria. The list of subjects of theses are presented to students at the beginning of each academic year. Subjects of diploma theses to obtain bachelor degree can be proposed by students.

Examples of dissertations for bachelor degree :

1. Importance of the Proteus bacteria biofilm in urinary tract infections.

2. Microorganisms in extreme environments.

3. Participation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in urinary tract infections.

4. Urinary tract infections – treatment and prevention with phytotherapy.

5. Application of bacteriophages for the control of pathogenic bacteria in food.


Examples of dissertations for master degree:

  1. Phage typing of Proteus mirabilis belonging to 80 O-serogrups.
  2. The study of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis hydrophobicity.
  3. Application of polyphenols to prevent bacterial colonization of urinary catheter
  4. Extraction and visualization of extracellular polymers (EPS) from Proteus mirabilis biofilm.

Materials for students

Useful links

Photo gallery