Section of General Microbiology

Curator of the Department: Prof. dr. hab. Antoni Różalski

Address: 90-237 Łódź,  Banacha  Street 12/16, building A

Phone no.: +48 42 635 44 64

Fax: +48 42 665 58 18




Name and surname




Consultation hours

Prof. Antoni Różalski - curator

+48 42 635 44 64

A / 376

Wed. 12:00-14:00

dr Dominika Drzewiecka (adjunct)

+48 42 635 44 69


Tue. 12:00-13:00

Thu. 12:00-13:00

dr Agata Palusiak (adjunct)

+48 42 635 44 69


Tue. 12:00-13:00

Fri. 14:00-15:00

dr Agnieszka Zabłotni (adjunct)

+48 42 635 44 69


Mon. 12:00-13:00

Wed. 12:00-13:00

dr Małgorzata Siwińska  (adjunct)

+48 42 635 44 69


Mon. 12:00-13:00 Fri. 12:00-13:00


PhD students:

Name and surname



Mgr Dominik Matusiak

+48 42 635 44 69




Research topics

  1. Serological classification of Proteus sp. bacilli into the appropriate O serogroups.
  2. Biological, antigenic and serological characterization of Proteus strains isolated from different clinical materials from patients in Łódź region.
  3. Determination of the possibility of endogenic infection and spread among individuals of Proteus strains by serological and antibiotic typing techniques and genetic relationship analysis.
  4. Studies of antibiotic susceptibility and other properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains isolated from urine of patients from Łódź region.
  5. Analysis of lipopolysaccharide properties from planctonic and biofilm forming cells of Proteus sp. clinical strains.
  6. Studies of the influence of the subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacine on Proteus sp. clinical strains.


Research projects:

  1. Donation for young scientists and PhD students: Comparison of chemical structure and biological properties of lipopolysaccharides isolated from planctonic and biofilm forming Proteus strains,  2013, grant for PhD students
  1. Grant N N401 015636 Serological and structural studies of the O-specific part of lipopolysaccharides from Proteus penneri strains collection. Determination of their serological affinity,  2009-2013, National Center of Science, Poland
  2. Grant N N401 020135 Characterization and serological analysis of clinical strains from the genus Proteus, isolated in Łódź area, 2008-2013, National Center of Science, Poland
  3. Grant N401 001 31/0009 Immunochemical studies of the core region of lipopolysaccharides from Proteus strains,  2006 – 2008, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education
  4. Grant 2 P05A08526 Immunochemical and structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharides of lipopolysaccharides from Proteus strains and updating of the serological classification scheme for the bacteria belonging to the genus, Polish Committee for Scientific Research, 2004-2007


  • Institute of Organic Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences Wrocław, Poland



  • preparation and purification of bacterial lipoplysaccharides
  • lipopolysaccharide electrophoresis


Selected publications

  1. Palusiak A.: “Immunochemical properties of Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharides – one of the major Proteus sp. virulence factors; Carbohydr Res., 380, 16-22, 2013
  2. Siwińska M., A. S. Shashkov, A. N. Kondakova, D. Drzewiecka, A. Zabłotni,
    N. P. Arbatsky, O. A. Valueva, K. Zych, Z. Sidorczyk, Y. A. Knirel: “Structure of the alanopine-containing O-polysaccharide and serological cross-reactivity of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438 classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O76”; Microbiology, 159, 1036-1043, 2013
  3. Arbatsky N. P., D. Drzewiecka, A. Palusiak, A. S. Shashkov, A. Zabłotni,
    M. Siwińska, Y. A. Knirel: “Structure of a Kdo-containing O polysaccharide representing Proteus O79, a newly described serogroup for some clinical Proteus genomospecies isolates from Poland”; Carbohydr Res., 379, 100-105, 2013
  4. Palusiak A., M. Siwińska, Z. Sidorczyk: “Serological studies of Proteus penneri strains determining qualification to appropriate O-serogroup”; Pol. J. Microbiol., 62, 211-216, 2013
  5. Ovchinnikova O.G., Valueva O.A., Kocharova N.A., Arbatsky N.A., Maszewska A., Zabłotni A., Shashkov A.S., Rozalski A., Knirel Y.A.: Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O35 containing an N-[(S)-1-carboxyethyl]-L-alanine (alanopine) derivative of 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose. Carbochydrate research, 375, 73-78, 2013
    1. Różalski A., A. Torzewska, M. Moryl, I. Kwil, A. Maszewska, K. Ostrowska,
      D. Drzewiecka, A. Zabłotni, A. Palusiak, M. Siwińska, P. Stąçzek: „Proteus sp. – an opportunistic bacterial pathogen – classification, swarming growth, clinical significance and virulence factors”; Folia Biologica et Oecologica, 8, 1-17, 2012
  1. Ovchinnikova O. G., B. Liu, N. A. Kocharova, A. S. Shashkov, A. N. Kondakova,
    M. Siwińska, L. Feng, A. Różalski, L. Wang, Y. A. Knirel: “Structure of a peptidoglycan-related polysaccharide from Providencia alcalifaciens O45”; Biochemistry (Moscow), 77, 609-615, 2012
  2. D. Drzewiecka, N. P. Arbatsky, P. Stączek, A. S. Shashkov, Y. A. Knirel,
    Z. Sidorczyk: “Structural and serological studies of the O-polysaccharide of strains from a newly created Proteus O78 serogroup prevalent in Polish patients”; FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 58, 269-276, 2010
  3. Palusiak A. and Z. Sidorczyk: “Characterization of epitope specificity of Proteus penneri 7 lipopolysaccharide core region”; Acta Biochim. Pol., 57, 529-532, 2010
  4. Palusiak A. and Z. Sidorczyk: “Serological characterization of the core regions
    of lipopolysaccharides of rough Proteus sp. strains”; Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp., 57, 303-310, 2009
  5. Palusiak A., M. Dzieciątkowska and Z. Sidorczyk: “Application of two different kinds of sera against Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharide core region in search of epitopes determining cross-reactions with antibodies”; Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp., 56,
    135-140, 2008
  1. D. Drzewiecka, N. P. Arbatsky, A. S. Shashkov, P. Stączek, Y. A. Knirel,
    Z. Sidorczyk: „Structure and serological properties of the O-antigen of two clinical Proteus mirabilis strains classified into a new Proteus O77 serogroup”; FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 54, 185-194, 2008
  2. K. Zych, K. Kołodziejska, D. Drzewiecka, A. V. Perepelov, Y. A. Knirel,
    Z. Sidorczyk: „Serological classification and epitope specificity of Proteus vulgaris TG 251 from Proteus serogroup O65”; Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp.,55, 187-91, 2007
  3. Arbatsky N. P., A. N. Kondakova, S. N. Senchenkova, M. Siwińska, A. S. Shashkov, K. Zych, Y. A. Knirel, Z. Sidorczyk: „Structure of a new ribitol teichoic acid-like
    O-polysaccharide of a serologically separate Proteus vulgaris strain, TG 276-1, classified into a new Proteus serogroup O53”; Carbohydr. Res., 342, 2061-2066, 2007
  4. Zabłotni A., K. Zych, A. N. Kondakova, M. Siwińska, Y. A. Knirel, Z. Sidorczyk: „Serological and structural characterization of the O-antigens of the unclassified Proteus mirabilis strains TG 83, TG 319 and CCUG 10700 (OA)”; Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp., 55, 347-352, 2007
  5. K. Kołodziejska, A. V. Perepelov, A. Zabłotni, D. Drzewiecka, S. N. Senchenkova,
    K. Zych, A. S. Shashkov, Y. A. Knirel, Z. Sidorczyk: „Structure of the glycerol phosphate-containing O-polysaccharides and serological studies of the lipopolysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis CCUG 10704 (OE) and Proteus vulgaris
    TG 103 classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O54”; FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 47, 267-274, 2006
  6. Zabłotni A., A. V. Perepelov, K. Kołodziejska, K. Zych, Y. A. Knirel,
    Z. Sidorczyk (2006): „Classification of Proteus mirabilis TG 115 and CCUG 10701 into the Proteus O23 serogroup based on chemical and serological studies of
    O-polysaccharides”; Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp., 54, 411-417
  7. Zabłotni A., A. V. Perepelov, Y. A. Knirel, Z. Sidorczyk (2005): „Structure of the
    O-polysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis OC (CCUG 10702) from a new proposed Proteus serogroup O75”; Carbohydr. Res., 340, 1908-1913
  8. D. Drzewiecka, K. Zych, Z. Sidorczyk: „Characterization and serological classification of a collection of Proteus penneri clinical strains”; Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp., 52, 121-128, 2004
  9. Z. Sidorczyk, A. N. Kondakova, K. Zych, S. N. Senchenkova, A. S. Shashkov,
    D. Drzewiecka, Y. A. Knirel: „Structure of the O-polysaccharide from Proteus myxofaciens. Classification of the bacterium into new Proteus O serogroup”; Eur. J. Biochem., 270, 3182-3188, 2003


Dissertation topics

Examples of dissertations for bachelor degree

  • Antibiotics in natural environments and their influence on drug resistance
  • Presence of Proteus sp. bacteria in food products
  • Characteristic of Klebsiella sp. Bacilli
  • Quorum quenching in marine environments
  • Virulence factors of opportunistic pathogens from Proteus species
  • Extremophiles – microorganism of extreme environments

Examples of dissertations for master degree

  • Serological typing of Proteus sp. clinical strains isolated in Łódź region
  •  Influence of subinhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin on antibiotic resistance of Proteus sp. clinical strains
  •  Assignation of the affinity to O serogroups of serologically unique clinical Proteus strains isolated in Łódź
  • Determination of O serogroups of serologically distinct Proteus strains isolated from patients in Łódź region
  • Analysis of the relatedness between antibiotic susceptibility profiles and serological properties of Proteus sp. clinical strains
  • Analysis of the affinity of Klebsiella sp. multidrug resistant clinical strains
  • Analysis of the affinity of Proteus mirabilis clinical strainsisolated in Łódź
  • Studies of the possibility of Proteus mirabilis strains transmission among patients from Łódź region
  • Studies of the affinity of clinical Proteus sp. strains and frequency of plasmids production
  • Analysis of biological features determined by the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus sp. clinical strains from Łódź area
  •  Phenotypic characterization of clinical Proteus mirabilis and Proteus genomospecies strains isolated in Łódź
  • Determining the antibiotic susceptibility of 12 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the urine of the patients from Łódź area
  •  Determining the susceptibility profile of 12 Klebsiella oxytoca clinical strains to a selected set of eight antibiotic
  • Determination of the susceptibility profile of Proteus sp. clinical isolates to selected set of 8 antibiotics


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